- Inkscape是一款开源（自由）的工具，支持Windows、Mac OS X和Linux。请使用最新版本避免出现兼容性问题。
- 用于维基导游地图的DejaVu Sans和DejaVu Sans Condensed。你可以在这里找到它们。
- 点击导出数据按钮。确保选中了“Mapnik Image”且“图片尺寸”合适（最好介于2000x2000至3000x3000之间）。点击输出按钮下载。
- OpenStreetMap.org  （简称：OSM）是寻找具有街道级别的细节与现有地图的最佳场所。（有可能从OpenStreetMap使用导出的SVG档，并由此消除了任何追踪的需要。参见#从OSM导入SVG以用于详细说明。）
- 佩里 - 卡斯塔涅达图书馆所收藏的地图和联合国制图科，是对现有的国家地图提供良好来源（虽然他们提供的道路网并非总是准确的）。但是在维基导游的地区地图远征队，已经完成了世界上所有国家的最后一哩路，所以两大网站的道路网在维基导游已经变得不那么重要了！
- 在陆地卫星全球马赛克是由NASA WorldWind所有的卫星图像（除了i-3可视层），Blue Marble和 USGS层为公共领域，因此符合我们的公共版权依据，他们还甚至不要求署名完全兼容。然而不幸的是，通常将不会在可用于美国之外地理位置的公共领域与足够高的分辨率图像。
Inkscape doesn't handle patterns very well. You will notice that patterned objects often display transparent gridlines, and that you seemingly cannot control the scale of the pattern.
The first problem is easily solved by duplicating the patterned object (ctrl+d), moving the duplicate below the original (PgDn/END) and then using the eyedropper tool to set the fill color to the background (green for parks, blue for water) from the original.
For the second problem, there actually is a way to scale patterns in Inkscape, though it is exceptionally well hidden. Select the patterned object with the node editor (F2). Then scroll to the left (often very far to the left), where you will see a square/circle/x "box". By clicking and dragging the square handle, you can scale the pattern.
Create a new layer called Geography and bring that layer to the top (shift+ctrl+home).
Lay out any green spaces, again using the Bézier pen, this time with the Wikivoyage park pattern as fill (pattern15875), stroke color 406c86ff and a stroke width of 0.05mm. If the green area fills up an entire city block between streets, you can set stroke off, draw the area so it overlaps the streets, and then just push the layer down later.
Follow the same process for any bodies of water but use fill: pattern8479, stroke colour: 406c86ff, stroke width: 0.05mm.
Rivers should ideally be drawn with a stroke colour matching the pattern color for water (9ccec9ff), but if they are not showing up clearly enough, try something like 053bd7ff. The stroke width should match the scale of the river you are tracing.
Once this layer is complete, set it to be the layer below the Streets layer and below other transportation layers. Moving layers up and down is relatively straightforward in Inkscape. You can do this either by selecting layer, then raise layer or lower layer, or by using the shortcuts of shift+ctrl+PgUp and shift+ctrl+PgDn.
If (only if) your map contains any major buildings or landmarks which you wish to be defined, create a layer above Main area later called Buildings and draw them there. For these the fill color is 8e908dff, the stroke color is 808080ff and the stroke width is again 0.05mm.
Create a new layer called Street names and bring that layer to the top (shift+ctrl+home).
It's generally best to use the DejaVu Sans bold font, which displays more clearly at small resolutions, especially when printed for offline use. Label each of your streets (or as many as is practical/desirable).
At this stage you can also place any other labels required:
- Lake or pond names: use font colour 006bffff
- River names: use font colour 053bd7ff
- Park names: a label over the top of the park pattern normally looks best in white.
- Neighbourhood names, building names etc.: often look best in dark grey and not black (e.g.: 1a1a1aff) and italicised.
Now, create two new layers called Travel icons and Key and bring them to the top.
Depending on the scale of your map, you might need to resize the travel icons provided in the template. To resize icons use menu option object, transform, scale and scale them to a size that will work on your map (ctrl+m). (select multiple objects at once by pressing F1 and drawing a selection rectangle around them). You can copy and paste the required icons from the template.
On the template, you will see a white listings box. This should be copied and pasted into the Key layer. It can be re-sized and re-shaped to best fit your map and the volume of listings it is going to contain. Edit the text in the listings box so that it contains all listings from the article (for see/do, buy, eat, drink, sleep, and contact listings) numbered and in alphabetical order.
Take all the entries of the Wikivoyage article and start placing them in the map, editing them as you go to make sure the numbers to align with those in the listings box. Ideally, you would know exactly where everything goes already but an online address locator like Google Maps is very handy for refreshing your memory. You can change the icon numbers by selecting the text tool, clicking on top of the icon, and then editing the number. Make sure not to change the font of the text in travel icons—it is formatted for maximum readability (especially when printed) at minimum size.
You should now also copy from the template and paste into this layer the inset title box (scale (ctrl-m or ctrl or alt+< or >) and edit as necessary), the scale (adjust as necessary) and the north arrow (scale as necessary). Please remember to take the extra time to add an accurate scale—it's extremely important for travelers determining just how far they'll be walking. An easy way to do this is to just match your scale to the one on your base image.
Note: It is critical to follow the above instructions insofar as you maintain separate layers for any text that could conceivably need translation into other languages, as this will make the process far, far more easy.
You should now have all the elements of your map completed and the following steps should ensure that it is finished off nicely:
- Change the properties of any desaturated layers back to 100% using the opacity slider.
- Create a final layer called Frame in which you mark out the exact area of the map you wish to be exported to the PNG file (and thereby the exact area of the map to be included in the article). This layer should always be the top layer, contain no fill and no stroke width. You can select it even without a fill or stroke by navigating to the Frame layer and pressing ctrl-a to select everything within that layer (do not create more than one object in the frame layer!).
- It is a good idea to size your frame so that it can be exported at the exact resolution of 3008x1709 pixels. The thin green box on the template is already set to these proportions, so you only need to resize and/or rotate it to fit your map. For really big maps that are more square than rectangular, double the width of the box to 3008x3418, and it can then be printed as two pages.
- Select your frame, then go to File and Document Properties. Click on "Resize page to content" and then "Resize page to drawing or selection". By doing this, thumbnails will appear correctly on Wikimedia Commons.
You should export a copy of your map to PNG by selecting your blank frame and hitting shift+ctrl+e. This allows you to easily control the size and shape of the export.
It is best to use PNG files, as opposed to raw SVGs, because SVGs do not always display well in various browsers, Wikivoyage does not offer support for SVG graphics, and most importantly, this will allow you and other editors much greater flexibility in coordinating, updating, and generally getting more use out of the SVG file (especially with regards to translating).
When exporting the bitmap, enter an appropriate width in pixels — 2,000-3,000 pixels is usually reasonable, as it will give a great result when printed. A smaller thumbnail of the map will go in the article itself, preferably at a resolution that will allow users to read all text within the article. Give the map a suitable name, click export and you are done!
The SVG road maps available from OpenStreetMap are a great base for creating Wikivoyage style maps, potentially saving loads of time otherwise spent tracing by hand!
The export feature on OpenStreetMap's main site is effectively broken, so don't bother. Instead, download and install Maperitive , an excellent, newbie-friendly program with a handy feature for exporting SVG files from OSM data. BrainCrunch wrote a handy guide  to using Maperitive for SVG exports, but the quick version is as follows:
In Maperitive, first navigate to the area you want to export.
- Set boundaries using the Map -> Set Bounds menu button, and drag them how you like.
- Load the OSM content within those boundaries via Map -> Download OSM Data (Overpass API).
- Remove the web map by clicking on "Web map" at the bottom right in the "Map Sources" box, and then click on the red X.
- Export to SVG using the command prompt at the bottom of the screen. Enter (without quotes): "export-svg compatibility=inkscape zoom=X"
You can choose any number 1–19 for the zoom, which will decide how much detail is exported (and therefore how big the filesize will be). zoom=15 is the point at which street names are included, but you can preview how much detail you'll get simply by zooming in and out in Maperitive (the keyboard shortcuts are + and -). The current zoom level in Maperitive is always shown in the very bottom taskbar, e.g., "zoom 5.4748".
For exporting a large area, going lower than zoom=7 will usually mean the highways are left off.
OSM imports from Maperitive come with a ton of extraneous layers, and editing in them in Inkscape can place pretty big demands on your PC's memory (and Inkscape loves to crash). This section is a quick and dirty guide to keeping things manageable right from the start.
Save (Ctrl+S) between all steps, and vacuum definitions (File → Vacuum defs) after deleting major layers or items.
1) Turn off the most resource intensive layers. Turn off "line artwork," save. Turn off "polygons," save. Turn off "labels," save.
2) Delete "map frame" and "map grid" layers (but keep the map grid layers if you want to display latitude and longitude, for island archipelago maps, for example) and the floating label.
3) You can delete tons of unnecessary items "polygons" by deleting clearly irrelevant layers without even turning them on to look at them (buildings, orchards, commercial areas, etc.), but you may want to keep "water," "national park," "nature reserve," and any other layers you think you'll want. Deleting buildings in particular helps a lot with reducing the filesize.
4) Create rivers layer (if you want to keep them) and move everything from any river and stream (if you want extra stream details) sublayers of "Line artwork" to that new layer. Then turn the new "rivers" layer off and delete the now empty layers. The easiest way to select all the rivers and streams from different layers at once, in order to move them together, is to turn off or lock all non-river/stream layers and then click and drag to select.
5) Do the same for all highway layers—put them in a new highway layer and delete the now empty layers.
6) It's often useful to preserve the coastline in a separate layer in the same fashion.
7) National Park and all "boundary" layers are usually useful, so be careful to keep them when removing layers from "line artwork."
8) You'll notice that a lot of paths are clones. That's not helpful, so select them (one layer at a time) and use "Edit -> Clone -> Unlink clone" (or Shift+Alt+D) to unlink them. Remove any fill that is auto-added to them in the process, then vacuum defs, save, and watch the filesize decrease!
9) Time to get creative. Import the regions map template to a new "template" layer, and adjust colors to match the Wikivoyage scheme. Create the regions layer, perhaps borrowing boundaries from one of the boundary layers in "Line artwork," add city markers and labels, key, etc. You can use the existing scale in the "Map decoration" layer to measure the Wikivoyage-style scale.
As Inkscape is not good at cropping, the fastest (i.e., least memory-intensive) method is to draw an object (like a rectangle) over the area you want to crop, and then use the difference tool by selecting the object on top and the target of the crop, then pressing Ctrl+-.
The small white streets in imports are the single biggest source of vector nodes that eat up your visual memory. Put them all in a "small streets" layer, and turn it off by clicking the eye icon next to the layer in the layers dialogue (this will render that layer invisible until you turn it back on). Now select a single little white street (Ctrl+click), then hit Ctrl+Shift+X to pull up the XML editor. Then copy the info listed under "style." Hit Ctrl+F to bring up the find box, and paste the style info into the style field, then hit enter. That should select all of the small white streets with that same style. Then hit Ctrl+G to group them, which will make it easier for your computer to move them to a different layer. Now Shift+PgUp to move the small street grid to the invisible "small streets" layer. That can take a while, but once it's done, the small streets will remain hidden until you need them, and won't bog down your system resources.
First text. Unfortunately the text in the "labels" layer of imported OSM SVGs is not usually that helpful. You will probably wind up deleting those layers and adding your own text. Be sure to use DejaVu Sans Condensed!
It's time to move on to the streets (the larger ones, since you already took care of the small ones in the "Manage" section above). You must select all objects of one type (e.g., red-colored streets), put them into one group (Ctrl+G), and then change the color to match the usual Wikivoyage scheme. To select all paths/objects of one category, use the find operation as described in the above section. Red-colored streets are easy to select, for example, simply enter "stroke:#eb9799" to the style box in the find operation to select all red-colored streets. Combine the streets into a group, then move them to a dedicated big streets layer. Repeat for all types of streets. To find unique attributes for the various street types, select one path, then open the XML editor (Shift+Ctrl+X), examine the style attribute, and find a unique value to enter into the find box. To match Wikivoyage color standards, change the stroke colors to white (although freeways/highways can be colored red or yellow to distinguish them from your average city street).
The colors of other objects, such as parks, buildings, and water areas, should also be changed to conform to Wikivoyage standards. This can be done in the same manner, using the find function to select all objects of a specific type, and then using the fill function to change the color (or pattern). Combining all the like objects into one path (Ctrl+K to combine a selection) will help keep things manageable. You can obtain standard colors and patterns here.
The final tasks are much more simple, but are time intensive. What is left is to add travel icons, a key, title, compass, scale, etc. These tasks are identical to those described in the section above for hand drawn maps.
ShareMap.org is a social mapping service that allows the creation of freely licenced (CC-SA-3) SVG maps. Maps created with ShareMap can afterwards be tweaked in classic SVG editors before uploading.
- Ability to import specific type of objects from OpenStreetMap
- Ability to import user data collected by GPS (using GPX format)
- Ability to trace old printed map (especially interesting when you map historical features)
- At the same time, both a static (also known as SVG) and interactive, dynamic map is created
- Sometimes the visual appearance has to be tweaked in Inkscape before publication
- For performance reasons, OpenStreetMap backgrounds are embedded rasters
- With large datasets, classic GIS tools (QGis, Grass GIS) are more stable than web based ShareMap.
Please all map-makers use this section to add useful tips and tricks for using Inkscape.
- Use the edit path nodes tool (F2) for manipulating streets, since this keeps the stroke width constant.
- To extend a street, select it with edit path nodes tool and then choose the Bézier tool. Any nodes you add will become a part of the same object.
- Use ALT-cursor keys to 'nudge' objects into the right place.
- Objects can be combined into layers, which can be made visible or invisible by clicking on the "eye" icon. The following layer stack makes it easy to 'peel part' various components of a map: background - satellite data - area highlight - street map - area annotations.
- Locking layers that you are not actively working on can save you a lot of trouble by making it impossible to accidentally move or change objects on the locked layers.
- Inkscape is not the most stable of programs and is prone to hanging. It has an autosave feature in the latest version, but it's not 100% reliable; remember to save your work regularly.
- In Inkscape, be warned that grouping items together from different layers will bring them up to the layer of the highest item in the selection.
- Combining paths (ctrl-k) or grouping (ctrl-g) paths with exactly the same attributes (streets, parks, water) can save a lot of time, as it allows you to change identical paths with a single click. To automatically select paths with the same attributes, hit ctrl-x to bring up the XML editor; highlight and copy (ctrl-c) an item relevant item under style (such as fill:XXXXXXFF); then hit ctrl-f to bring up the find box; and paste (ctrl-v) the item into the it's style field. From there press enter, and you will have selected every path in your SVG with that particular attribute!
- The union, difference, and intersection tools from the path menu are incredibly useful for precise manipulation of objects. It will take a bit of experimentation to master their use, but this is especially worthwhile for handling complex geography, or creating interlocking color fields to display neighborhoods or regions on your map.
- Before performing operations, always close the XML editor, which will otherwise display every individual change painfully slowly.