长城

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八达岭长城

長城,是不同時期古代中國為抵禦不同時期塞北游牧部落聯盟侵襲,修築規模浩大的軍事工程的統稱。長城東西綿延上萬華里,因此又稱作萬里長城。現存的長城遺蹟主要為始建於14世紀的明長城,西起嘉峪關,東至虎山長城,長城遺址跨越北京、天津、青海、山東、內蒙等15個省市自治區,總計有43721處長城遺產。長城同時也是自人類文明以來最巨大的單一建築物,以及修繕時間持續最久的建築物。

了解[编辑]

由于绵延千里,在中国的许多地方都能看到长城的一部分。各地长城的保存程度不同,有的很好参观有的却难以抵达。需要注意的是各地的参观费用不尽相同,例如你想徒步从金山岭到司马台的话,你可能要支付两倍的价格。

历史[编辑]

长城地图

我们所知道的长城实际上是不同时代不同帝王建造的一系列城墙的集合。

  • 第一长城:建于公元前221-207,秦朝
  • 第二长城:建于公元前205-127,汉朝
  • 第三长城:建于公元1200,金朝
  • 第四长城:建于公元1367–1644,明朝

其他时期的长城现在几乎都已成废墟。照片中大部分是明长城。

第一长城[编辑]

第一长城是秦始皇帝在他巩固他的统治并首次统一中国之后在公元前214年完成建造的。长城是用来防御匈奴军队从北方的袭击的。秦始皇动员了500000名工人用32年的时间建立了第一长城。 虽然长城致力于防御敌人,但它并没有能够阻止来自内部压力,导致在公元前206年发生政权更迭,汉朝成为新的统治者。第一位汉朝皇帝——汉高祖很快看到长城对于防御敌人的好处并建造更多的长城一直延伸到了甘肃省的招降。

第二长城[编辑]

70多年后,汉朝仍在与敌人作战,因为长城损坏,敌人很容易就攻破了它。公元前130年,汉武帝开始计划在原有的第一长城基础下重建和扩展。公元前127年,后皇帝在他的统治下完成拓展更多的地区,他下令扩建,在甘肃省的张掖武威酒泉敦煌银川和在新疆的罗布泊和其他地方修建了第二长城。长城一直延伸到河西走廊,通过这条丝绸之路与西方的国家进行交流。

当汉王朝土崩瓦解成魏、蜀和吴三国的时候,魏国决定继续维护长城以防御游牧民族柔然鲜卑从北部平原的攻击。尽管经常维修,游牧民族柔然仍然在不断攻破长城。魏在长城内外修建了不同的城墙。最终,魏晋南北朝合并成统一的隋朝,公元618年被唐朝推翻。

直到辽朝和宋朝统治时期,统治者才对长城做了些什么。辽代控制了北方,宋朝控制了南方。辽朝主要在中国东北地区有一个部落问题称为女真(普通话称为满族)所以他们建造的城墙都是沿着黑龙江、松花江建造的。但是这些未能阻止袭击者南下。

第三长城[编辑]

1115年,女真在北方建立了金朝,understood that the Mongols were right behind them. The Jin emperor ordered the construction of a Third Great Wall to be built in Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The walls built had the characteristics of having ditches running along the walls full length.

Despite the impressive fortifications built, the Mongols overthrew the Jin in 1276 and established the Yuan Dynasty. During the Yuan dynasties rule, the Wall fell into deep disrepair and in 1368, the Chinese Ming Dynasty walked right in and took control.

The Ming Dynasty, after getting rid of the Mongols, determined that they would never be taken again by outsiders. The first emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Hongwu, re-established manning of the Great Wall, fortresses and garrisons were built along the wall, and the fort at Jiayuguan was built in 1372 at the western end of the wall. The second Ming emperor, Yongle, turned his focus outward from the empire and sent out explorers and diplomats into the big, wide world.

第四长城l[编辑]

It was not until the battle of Tumu against the Mongols that renewed interest in reinforcing the Great Wall occurred. Between 1569 and 1583, the best-known parts of the Great Wall were built, the Fourth Great Wall. The reinforced wall managed to repel Mongols several times.

The Manchu retook China in 1644 and formed the Qing Dynasty. From this point on, the Wall slowly started to fade away while stone and rocks were taken from the Wall for building projects and homes. The Cultural Revolution definitely took its toll out on the wall when local people and local governments were encouraged to help dismantle the Great Wall.

It was not until 1984 that President Deng Xiaoping started a restoration and protection project of the Great Wall. In 1987, the Great Wall was declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO.

景观[编辑]

The geography of Northern China ranges from mountainous in northeast Liaoning and Hebei Provinces, through the grasslands of Ningxia, semi-arid desert of China's loess plateau, and borders the sand dunes of the Tengger desert of Inner Mongolia. It is the area around Hebei and Beijing that most people associate with the Great Wall, but most of the Great Wall lies in the desert regions of the country.

动植物[编辑]

Chinese wildlife is diverse, considering all of the different habitats available along the length of the Great Wall. From the rare Siberian tiger in the northeast to the protected and rare Giant Panda, which lives in southern Gansu, Sichuan, and Shaanxi, you never know what you might see on a given day.

Wild mammals can be found in the north, such as the Manchurian weasel, brown and black bears, northern pika, and mandarin vole. Deer species include Sika deer, roe deer and the long-sought-after spotted deer, which has many uses in Chinese medicine.

The birds of the region include various pheasants, black grouse, pine grosbeak, various woodpeckers, mandarin duck, and the fairy pitta, a rare migratory bird. Cranes are especially revered in China. Common, demoiselle, white-naped, hooded, and red-crowned cranes all breed in China.

You can find many tonic plants along the Great Wall, such as the rare ginseng (Panax ginseng). Chinese medicine has had many thousands of years to discover and use these tonic plants for the benefit of mankind.

气候[编辑]

Northern China has all four seasons and they arrive with a vengeance. Summer and winter temperatures normally reach extremes of over 40°C and –20°C respectively.

觀光[编辑]

由於萬里長城整體是相當長的,有很多地方可以參觀。下面的列表是透過省/直轄市而劃分的。

北京[编辑]

Great Wall at Simatai

北京最熱門的景點,可以在一天內參觀完。

八达岭和居庸关[编辑]

八达岭和居庸关是离北京最近的长城,也是最拥挤的长城。On the weekdays, Badaling is not too crowded, and it is the easiest to reach affordably, i.e. without hiring a taxi. From the Southwest corner of Tiananmen Square, take the number 5 bus (¥1 public bus or ¥0.4 if you have IC card, ~10min froom drum/bell tower or ~30min from Qianmen) to the last stop or the line 2 subway to Jishuitan station (¥2). Walk east on the north side of the road to the bus station. Take bus number 919 (¥12 one way, ¥4.80 one way with pre-paid card, air conditioned coach bus) to Badaling (877 seems to have the same path/cost). The last bus from Beijing to Badaling leaves at around 12:00, the last bus from Badaling to Beijing at around 16:00. For the ride back, better arrive half an hour early if you want to sit down during the 1-hour drive!

Note: There are many different 919 buses. The one to Badaling is at the very rear (farthest east) of the station. Be very wary of men in blue jackets posing as transit workers. They will lie all the way up to the bus door (and in front of real transit workers) by saying there are no more buses, it is the wrong bus, or that they are overpriced, etc. and try to get unknowing passengers to take their overpriced taxi and/or shuttle. The real transit workers around the area will be of no help (as they may be taking a cut), so you must ask the ticket giver directly on the bus if it is the correct bus. It will be only ¥12.

You can also take a 919 home for ¥12, which means that you can stay as long as you like. Alternatively, take the train from Beijing North Station (¥14 one way for hard seat, which is still nicer than most airplanes, with plenty of leg room). But make sure to call ahead or check online for the times as they change often.


除了坐公交之外,还可以从北京北站或清华园站坐火车。(the latter is a small station not too far away from the Zhichunlu subway intersection station; guaranteed no queues, but you may not be able to find a seat at busy times). The schedule posted on seat61 [1] seems to be more or less accurate, but always double check on cnvol.com. Travelling by train allows you time to visit the wall at your own leisure, bypassing the need to go to the Ming Tombs and random stores. The train has very large viewing windows, allowing you breathtaking views of the scenery and the great wall even before you arrive at Badaling. Take a seat on the left as the train leaves Beijing to get the best views. Tickets costs ¥6 each way, they must be purchased the same day of travel and only from the station of departure. There is no time on the ticket so you may use the ticket for any train that day. If you don't want to wait in lines to buy tickets you may also use your subway card to board and pay for the trip. If you can't find empty seats you can hang out in the nearly empty dining car, which has a couple of comfortable booths with tables. 在八达岭站下车后左转,步行 800 米到八达岭入口。门票 (旺季)¥45 (淡季) ¥40 (discount available for students). Audio tour service ¥15/40 for Chinese/English + ¥200 deposit.

The hike is still a challenge with plenty of steep hills, so once you get a bit into the wall the crowd thins quickly. On weekdays, there aren't any vendors chasing you on the wall; they stay in the little town area. In addition, there are Sun Bears that you can feed carrots to for ¥3 in the little town. Don't take the ¥100 tours that people offer you outside the Forbidden City or at Tiananmen Square - you only get 2 hours at the wall, and then you go to the Ming Tombs (read: big hill) and have to eat lunch; in addition, they can cancel the bus on you, they don't leave until the bus is full, and you have to stay with your tour group (with the loud mega phone and all) in order to get back to the city. Full walk path is: tower/path closed <> Guizhou pavilion for the stele <> (cable car/?closed) <> tower <> path to exit / great wall museum <> (sliding car, ?stairs) <> 6th tower <> 8th tower (top; cable car nearby ~100m) <> tower <> 10th tower in the north (stairs) <> tower/path closed. Cable/sliding car costs ~¥30/60 one/both way and it takes ~2-3h to do the whole wall depending on your fitness/weather/crowd.

In winter, expect to loose 5°C between Beijing and the Wall. This plus the wind from the mountain, you will cherish every layer of clothes you can have. The vendors will be here to sell everything you may have forgotten, although the price is not reasonable. For the good part : the crowd is then much lighter, and almost nobody go after the first peak. The winter sun and, if you're lucky, the snow will give you amazing views on the walls.

慕田峪[编辑]

比八达岭稍远一些,修复得也一样好,不过明显不那么拥挤了。周边的景色要稍微绿一点。 It has a ski lift to get onto and off the wall (though walking via stairs is also possible) and a toboggan ride down! Misplaced, but fun. 交通方面,坐出租车最方便。 The only direct bus to the Mutinyau Great Wall section is the 867, which only runs during the tourist season (March 15 through November 15). As of 3 May 2012, it departs at 07:00 and 08:30 from the Dongzhimen outer bus station which you can get to by turning left out of the main bus station (arrive at Donzhimen subway, take "H" exit) and going for a 10 minute walk round the other side until you see a parking lot full of buses on your left (don't cross the street). To make it clear the 867 is not numbered when you come up the stairs from the subway. It is a totally separate bus terminal outside the main building. This is where the 867 leaves from, it is not easy to find and you will be hawked heavily by private taxis and mini buses. It costs ¥16 each way (¥6.4 with metrocard) and takes at least 2.5 hours. Also it's possible to use 936 and 916 that runs after that time and the will take you only to the city of Huairou which is 17 km away from the wall and around 60 km from Beijing. From there you have to take a taxi (¥20, but you have to bargain as the entry price is about ¥50). Be aware that it is likely that taxi drivers in league with the bus driver (who may be on the bus from Dongzhimen) will try and get you to come off the bus at the wrong stop in order to ensure that you take their taxi (fees until ¥400!). Also beware of people that offer to help you at Dongzhimen, that are in league with the taxi drivers and will point you to the wrong bus (980, for example), and you will end up having to backtrack to Huairou and pay double for the taxi (Great wall trek China expeditions is known to do this).

The actual bus stop Huairou Beije is not a bus terminal or anything with a 'Great Wall' on it - just a normal street bus stop. When you get off the bus you need to cross the road as your going in the opposite direction. (you will see a large roundabout your going straight through this). The hawking is unbearable and extreme so be prepared.

Prices vary around ¥30 per person for a return trip with waiting 2h, plus ¥5 for the parking when going out. For the return journey, the 867 leaves at 14:00 and 16:00 from parking lot 3 - the same place it dropped you off at Mutianyu if you caught it in the morning. Note that on Sunday 16:00 bus might be really crowded. It is an official looking bus with a number on it so don't be fooled by any other drivers (e.g. minibuses) who try and steal your business. Also, do not be fooled by any taxi drivers who say "no bus!". Post with bus schedule is usually hidden behind minivan or any big car parked in front of it in western part of parking lot to confuse visitors. Mutianyu is magnificent. 门票 ¥45, ¥25 for students only with ID containing a photo. Besides that, the cable car to the wall costs more than the wall entrance: ¥65 for adults and ¥45 for children, alternatively the 15 min. walk uphill through the beautiful park and forest is free. If you're not afraid of walking through some shrubbery, and you've got some grip on your shoes, continue on past the restored section and head to the highest local watchtower. You will be greatly rewarded for your effort!

The last buses to Beijing Dongzhimen from Huairou city are the 936 at 17:00 while the service of the 916 ends at 19:00. Without the Beijing transportation card (that you can purchase at any metro station) the price is ¥16 but with the electronic card excpect to pay less than ¥5. See the details about the card on in the Beijing "Get around" section.

If you miss the bus, there is accommodation to be found near the shops in Huairou. There is a tourist information office that remains open during normal office hours, though it may seem closed due to lack of visitors. They will be able to help you find accommodation that is licensed to take foreigners, should you need it. The nearby "Yanxi Nightless Valley" area is full of small forest resorts, where you can pay around ¥100 for a fresh, farmed trout. Stay in the valley the night before, then hire a taxi out direct to one of the nearby Great Wall sections in the morning.

The Schoolhouse (a restaurant and lodging company in Mutianyu) also offers a schoolbus that goes to and from the Kempinski Hotel in Beijing to their restaurant that is a 10 minute walk from the wall on Saturdays and Sundays. It departs Beijing at 09:00 and the Schoolhouse at 18:00. The cost is ¥100 for a one-way trip or ¥120 for a same day round trip. Reservations must be made by 18:00 on the Thursday before you want to take it. If you are worried about taking a public bus but don't want to pay for a whole tour, this can be a good reliable option.

电话 +86 10 61626022

黄花城[编辑]

Huanghuacheng one of the most well built sections of the Great Wall that caused the beheading of Lord Cai, the builder, for mismanagement and waste

位于北京市怀柔区九渡河镇境内,距北京市区65公里,怀柔区中心西北35公里。 湖水将三段长城自然断开,因此被称为水长城。

古北口、金山岭和司马台[编辑]

离北京较远,相应的游客也大大减少。 Services are also limited, however; make sure you bring your own supply of water and extra film.

由北齐长城和明长城共同组成。

古北口长城有抗战遗址等景点,此段长城残破的城墙和弹孔颇有特色。门票 ¥25

司马台是我国唯一保留明代原貌的古长城,特点是“修旧如旧”。

箭扣[编辑]

明代长城最著名的险段之一,很多发表的关于长城的照片都是在这里拍摄的。'Jiankou', is translated as 'Arrow Nock' in English, because the shape of the mountain is like an arrow, with the collapsed ridge opening as its arrow nock.

There are many famous sections of Jiankou Great Wall, such as 'The Nine-Eye Tower', an important command post during the ancient wars. It has three layers, and there are nine holes which look like nine eyes on each side. 'The Beijing Knot' is the meeting point for three walls coming from different directions. 'The Sky Stair', is a precipitous stair whose angle of elevation is 70 to 80 degrees. It leads to 'The Eagle Flies Facing Upward', a watch tower built on the lofty peaks. It is so dangerous that even eagles have to fly facing upward to reach the top. 'Zhengbei Tower' is the right place to appreciate the beauty of the sunrise and the sunset.

水关[编辑]

位于八达岭长城附近。the Shuiguan Great Wall is sometimes called the 'Badaling-Shuiguan Great Wall'. It often happens that innocent visitors are guided to the Shuiguan Great Wall instead of their original destination - the Badaling Great Wall, especially during holidays or peak periods. Travel China Guide (TCG) kindly reminds you that no matter which wall you want to visit, please consult our guide-books and web-site beforehand. Especially check the admission fees.

The wall was opened to the public in 1995 after repair. Besides climbing the wall, you can also visit the Genghis Khan Palace, the Stone Buddha Temple, Luotuo Peak (Camel Peak) and the Great Wall Stele Forest nearby.

河北天津[编辑]

Old Dragon's Head beginning of the Great Wall
  • 山海关, at the Old Dragon's Head, the wall juts out into the sea. To get there from Beijing takes about 3 hours by train.
  • Panjiakou Reservoir - sunken part of the Great Wall
  • Huangyaguan - worth a visit for its water run-off controls, well-preserved towers, challenging hiking and striking scenery

辽宁[编辑]

  • Hushan - can be explored from Dandong
  • Jiumenkou - located 18 km east of "The First Pass Under Heaven' at Shanhaiguan

山西[编辑]

  • The Outer Wall of Shanxi - Li'erkou to Deshengbu, Juqiangbu to Laoniuwan, and along the Yellow River
  • The Inner Wall of Shanxi - Yanmenguan, Guangwu Old City, Ningwu Pass and Niangziguan

陕西[编辑]

  • Yulin and Shenmu - garrison towns in the time of the Ming dynasty

宁夏[编辑]

  • The Eastern Ningxia Wall - Hongshan Castle and Water Cave Gully (Shui Dong Gou)
  • The Northern Ningxia Wall - in the area of Helanshan
  • The Western Ningxia Wall - Zhenbeibu and Sanguankou

甘肃[编辑]

  • Minqin - oasis town
  • 张掖 - garrison headquarters
  • 嘉峪关 - Fort at Jiayu Pass, nicknamed "Last Fort Under Heaven"
  • 兰州 - former walled town that now is capital of Gansu Province

活動[编辑]

  • Hike from Jinshanling to Simatai The majority of the wall east of Jinshanling is also unrestored. The hike from Jinshangling to Simatai is roughly 10 km. It is a significant hike in distance but more so in the elevation change, but you will be rewarded with spectacular views and a good day of exercise. Expect to spend anywhere from 2.5 hours to 6 hours on the wall, depending on your fitness level, ambition and frequency of photo ops. When you are half way between the two sections, there are hardly any tourists. In fact, more foreign tourists are seen doing this thorough hike than domestic Chinese tourists. Comfortable shoes and clothes are needed, as you will be hiking on moving bricks sometimes combined with steep climbs. Water and snacks should be in your backpack. But you will find some local vendors selling water and sometimes snacks on the wall. When you descend down from Simatai, there is a zip line available for ¥40. It's roughly 400m, and is over a river. It will take you down to the other side of the river, and includes a short boat ride back to catch your ground transport. During the middle of this hike, collectors will charge you again because you are entering another part of the Wall. If you are going between sections, there is little you can do about it other than turn back. As of June 2010, the Simatai section is closed for repairs, so you can only hike to the western end and then have to turn back.
  • Visit the Great Wall Museum Down the "Badaling Pedestrian Street" and up a hill behind the "Circle Vision Theater" is the under-appreciated Great Wall Museum. The walk-through exhibits provide a good overview of the wall's multi-dynasty history, along with many artifacts from those time periods and photo-worthy models of watchtowers, scaling ladders, etc. The bathrooms are also probably the cleanest you'll find at Badaling (there's even a Western-style toilet). Best of all, admission is free! (closed on Monday, 09:00-16:00). Great wall circle-vision theater (40y/pers).
  • Downhill on the toboggan run The Mutianyu section offers two chairlift lines which run to different parts of the Great Wall section, a more modern one with bubble cabins and a less modern one with two-seater chairs. If you feel up to it and the weather is clear, the return ticket for the less modern lift is also good for a ride down the toboggan run. Though if you prefer, tickets can easily be purchased separately for the toboggan ride of course - just walk up to the ticket office at the beginning of the ride, then off you go down the wall. Note that the tickets for the lifts cost the same but are not interchangeable. If you can't read Chinese check the picture on the ticket, and if you get wrong one with a picture of the bubble cabins, it's not a problem to immediately get your money back and take it to the other ticket counter.

安全[编辑]

Bring a jacket against the wind or cold in the chillier seasons. In summer you will need lots of water, but there are plenty of vendors at the most visited sections. Be prepared for the possibility of sudden, short, but rather violent thunderstorms.

Do not leave any trace of your visit. Even if it is not an uncommon sight, resist the urge to add your name to the carvings in the wall, or take a piece home as a souvenir. If the wall should be damaged by your actions, the authorities may very well take action with fines and other punishments.

Hiking as a recreational sport is not well understood yet in China so the etiquette of crossing state and private land has not yet been established. Remember that the Wall is mostly mud and poorly supported stones, and that you are on your own if you're outside the maintained areas. Even if you are not walking on the wall, you will find few trails to follow and at some parts, the area the Wall traverses are vertical, treacherous and very unsafe. Besides that, it is difficult to obtain clean drinking water and some areas may even have no water at all. Other areas will have manmade obstacles, like roads and motorways that have solid fencing. Villages where you could get supplies may be few and far between. Some may take you miles away from the Wall. Poor cartography is still a problem here since maps of less than 1:450,000 are not easy to get a hold of due to the military applications of such maps. Besides that, guides who know the areas along the Great Wall are few and far between. The last item to think about regarding hiking the Great Wall is that China has no system of mountain/wilderness rescue personnel. You will be on your own should something happen to you.

Scams - Beware of bus scams that may ruin your day. Also try to avoid organized tours to the Great Wall costing ¥100-150. These are advertised by people handing out flyers around the Forbidden City in Beijing for example (the real bus service to the Great Wall only costs ¥20!). Also, the driver might just stop and set you off before your destination.

交通[编辑]

八达岭长城:在德胜门箭楼乘坐877路公交车一站直达,票价12元,德胜门6:00-12:00发车,八达岭长城11:00-17:00发车。

For other sections, hopefully you've come with a tour that is picking you up from that section. Taxis back to Beijing can be quite expensive (even from Badaling, it will probably be over ¥100).

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