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鸟瞰麦克默里堡
旅行警告 警告:2016年5月3日,一场失去控制的森林大火吞噬了麦克默里堡的大部分地区,关键基础设施损毁严重。阿巴山德、畢架山和沃特韋的街区都遭受了严重毁坏。截至2016年6月,受灾不严重地区的居民已经开始返回,但可用性的燃料、食品、饮用水和其他必需品仍然有限。

麦克默里堡是加拿大阿尔伯塔省的阿萨巴斯卡油田上最大的一个社区。在1995年与伍德法布罗直辖市的一大片农村区域合并后的基础上形成。

了解[编辑]

1870年,麥克默里堡透過由哈德遜灣公司辦理;並於1915年補充現有輪船服務於阿爾伯塔省和大水路鐵路抵達點。到了1966年止,這個小鎮有2000人。

Since then, the fate of Fort McMurray has been closely tied to that of Canada's oil sands industry. Suncor, Syncrude, Albian Sands, CNRL, OptiNexen and Deer Creek operate oil sands camps north and southeast of town. When world oil prices were high, population rose (an estimated 88000 people) while housing costs and average wages in "Fort McMoney" skyrocketed. When the price of oil cratered in 2015, many workers who had come from as far afield as Newfoundland quietly packed their bags for home.

In May 2016, the entire city population was evacuated due to wildfires which destroyed a substantial part of town; many fled south (toward Athabasca and Lac La Biche), but thousands were stranded north of the city for days in the sprawling oil sands camps around the tiny Fort MacKay native community.

地区[编辑]

Neighbourhoods which may still be standing include:

  • 市中心, or Lower Townsite, is the centre of action that takes place in the town. Fairly easy to navigate, the main thoroughfare is the ever so congested Franklin Avenue. Most of the city's services are here. You can expect to find the box-stores here, restaurants, clubs, shopping malls, and more.
  • Gregoire - A combination of trailer parks, condos, and retail. There are a few restaurants and stores in this neighbourhood, as well as a selection of both hotels and motels. This and Downtown are the only parts of Fort McMurray with hotels.
  • Thickwood, or Thickwood Heights is a large subdivision with approximately 20,000 people making it the second largest subdivision in FortMac. One can expect to find it very similar to Downtown. The main road is Thickwood Blvd.
  • Dickinsfield - Primarily residential with several services.

These areas have experienced a moderate amount of damage:

  • 伍德布法羅 - 主要住宅與一些商業區,全鎮現代化區域。
  • Timberlea - The largest subdivision in FortMac with approximately 35,000 people. Most of the new construction in town takes place in this area. Mostly residential, however several supermarkets, restaurants and stores have opened. Includes many smaller "sub"-subdivisions such as Lakewood, Parsons Creek and Confederation Heights.

These areas appear to be extensively damaged or destroyed:

  • Beacon Hill - A primarily residential community, had some stores and an arena.
  • Waterways - The oldest part of FortMac. A primarily residential community, had some stores.
  • Abasand Heights - Primarily residential with several services.

Google has posted a crisis map; areas in red indicate buildings completely destroyed.

抵达[编辑]

注意 注意:As of May 6, 2016 the airport is still standing but is handling emergency traffic only. Highway 63 (the only road into town) is surrounded on both sides by wildfire south of the city. It remains possible to flee Fort McMurray by driving north to the oil sands camps (effectively a dead end), but the filling stations have no fuel and there is little or no ability to move non-emergency traffic in or out of the region at the present time. [1]

航空[编辑]

Fort McMurray Airport (YMM) had several flights daily between Edmonton and Calgary and one daily flight between St. John's Newfoundland which stopped in Toronto en route. As of May 2016, all passenger services have been suspended.

Individual oil sands camps have airstrips on-site which are often large enough to accommodate jet aircraft, but offer no scheduled services.

汽車[编辑]

Highway 63 is the main road to Fort McMurray, about 450 kilometres NE of Edmonton. It is paralleled by Highway 881 for about 200 kilometres. Portions of the road remain one lane in each direction; twinning is in progress but incomplete. Some passing lanes have been installed. While large, wide loads and truck traffic both use the highway, traffic counts are low except Thursday nights (southbound) and Sunday afternoons/evenings (northbound).

Highway 63 has become notorious for vehicle accidents, particularly in the remaining two-lane sections. Many people commute to the oil sands from communities south, adding to the strain. Most structures for the oil sands are built in Edmonton and trucked up north, which can take up the entire highway.

鐵路[编辑]

Passenger rail service ended in 1986. While there's been some talk about upgrading the existing rail freight corridor, there's no real prospect of bringing back passenger trains.

公車[编辑]

Fort McMurray is served by Greyhound and Red Arrow Motorcoach from Edmonton.

周边游[编辑]

Fort McMurray is a loose cluster of several dozen subdivisions, many having only one entry/exit. Most subdivisions are pedestrian friendly, however to travel from one part of town to the other end, a vehicle is definitely recommended.

Fort McMurray has an extensive public transit system that reaches all areas of the city. Service is infrequent and the bus often arrives late.

Taxi cabs are easily available. Taxi cab companies include:

  • Access Taxi & Limo Service, +1 780 743-3333 / +1 780 742-8026
  • Citycabs, +1 780 750 3636 (special phone rate)
  • Comfort Shuttle and Charter Service - ask for Sonny (special rates to Oilsand Plants, sites & camps and for oil sands workers), +1 780 742-8026
  • Sun Taxi, +1 780 743-5050
  • United Class Cabs, +1 780 743-1234

观光[编辑]

Oil Sands Discovery Centre
  • The Oil Sands Discovery Centre, 515 MacKenzie Boulevard, +1 780 743-7167. September 4 - May 13, 10AM-4PM, closed Mondays. The Centre offers an insight on the rapid pace of development happening north of the city. In addition it explains the history of the oil sands, how the oil sand is mined and converted into product, and future ways of extracting the oil sand. The Discovery Centre also shows exhibits of machines that are used to process the oil sand.
  • Fort McMurray Tourism, +1-800-565-3947, schedules tours of Syncrude or Suncor, the main oil sand plants, from May to September. Reservations are required 24 hours in advance (one week to 10 days advance booking recommended). Children under 12 are not allowed on the tour.
  • Aurora Borealis, the "Northern Lights" are a must see in Fort McMurray. Tour guides such as Alberta Sky +1 780-452-5187 and Aurora Tours +1 780-334-2292 can arrange viewings of the elusive lights.

娱乐[编辑]

  • 指北冒險+1 780 743-9350,[2],提供獨木舟旅行和租金、江遊,以及水上乘船。

购物[编辑]

Souvenirs of Fort McMurray and the oil sands can be found at the Discovery Centre and specialty retail outlets. Some places, you can purchase small vials of actual oil sand, and different products that are associated with the process all the way to the final product - synthetic crude.

Fort McMurray has several shopping areas and malls. Peter Pond Shopping Centre, 9713 Hardin Street, +1 780-791-4044 is the main mall. It is, however quite small for a city of 80,000 people. Stoneycreek Village (112 Riverstone Ridge, Timberlea) is a more recent addition.

用餐[编辑]

Various national chains are present, including Boston Pizza, Earls Kitchen + Bar, The Keg Steakhouse and Montana's.

  • The Fish Place地址 412 Thickwood Blvd📞 +1 780-791-4040簡介 licensed steak and seafood restaurant; Canadian foods with a touch of international flair.
  • Kozy Korner Family Restaurant地址 8802 Franklin Ave📞 +1 780-743-3268簡介 Home-cooked style food.
  • Moxie's Classic Grill & Bar地址 #100-9521 Franklin Ave📞 +1 780-791-1996簡介 National chain with burgers and fries, seafood, salads and pasta. Kid-friendly casual dining restaurant, patio, drink specials daily.
  • Yoshi Japanese Restaurant地址 9612 Franklin Ave📞 +1 780-790-3440簡介 Sushi, seafood.

酒吧[编辑]

The legal drinking age in Alberta is 18.

住宿[编辑]

經濟[编辑]

  • Oil Sands Hotel地址 10007 Franklin Ave📞 +1 780 743-2211簡介 Diggers, Oil Can Tavern, Teasers are located in the hotel; Diggers is a typical nightclub music bar, Oil Can has live country music and Teasers has nude dancers.

中等[编辑]

  • Quality Hotel Fort Mcmurray地址 424 Gregoire Dr📞 +1 780 791-7200

高級[编辑]

  • Sawridge Inn and Conference Centre地址 530 McKenzie Blvd📞 +1 780 791-7900簡介 Full-service hotel with indoor pool and jacuzzi, fitness centre, business centre, free parking, high speed Internet. Hearthstone Lounge and Grille (11am to midnight, meals $12 to $30) in open concept lobby offers a wide selection of Canadian and local specialties, breakfast and lunch buffets, along with spirits, wine and beer. Jiggs Dinner featured every Sunday.

人身安全[编辑]

Fort McMurray can be known for its brutally cold winters. Temperatures can drop to minus 35 to minus 45 Celsius at times. It is very important that your vehicle is winterised and the engine block heater plugged in. Don't forget to bundle up! As for crime, Fort Mac is generally a very safe place. Franklin Avenue, between Hardin and Morrison as well as Main Street between MacDonald, and Fraser in the downtown area after dark after the bars close on a Friday and Saturday night can be a little rowdy at times but not dangerous.

下一站[编辑]

麥克默里堡北部[编辑]

Given Fort McMurray's rather isolated location, there is relatively little further north. The oil sands camps are large but self-contained. There is one small village accessible on Highway 63.

  • Fort McKay – a small native community (population 400) located 55 km north, the last community of any size on the highway.

It is possible to continue further north on the Athabasca River to the Slave River by boat (in summer); there's an ice road in winter.

  • Fort Chipewyan – also known as Fort Chip, is located 250 km north of Fort Mac. Travel by road is only permitted in winter as there are ice crossings.
  • Fort Smith (NWT) and Wood Buffalo National Park – 260 km beyond Fort Chipewyan, direct travel by road is only possible in winter. (There are all-season roads through Athabasca-Slave Lake-Hay River-Wood Buffalo National Park, but from Fort Mac that is the 1300km "long way around")

麥克默里堡南部[编辑]

注意 注意:在2016年5月4日,由於臨近發生森林火災,安扎克、格雷瓜爾湖莊園和麥克默里堡第一民族地區居民已被疏散。

The trip from Fort McMurray to Edmonton is about 440km.

For the first 25km, Highway 63 represents a single point of failure for all traffic out of Fort McMurray. It runs south through forest, ending 250km later at Highway 55 between Athabasca and Lac La Biche. The next settlement on the main road is Wandering River, a tiny hamlet 200km south of Fort Mac.

Highway 881 splits from the main road 25km south of Fort Mac to go east through Anzac then south to Lac La Biche. The small hamlet of Anzac (pop 750, about 20km down Hwy 881) offers country-style living, services including a general store and proximity to the Long Lake oilsands project. Highway 881 continues south through mostly forest with few, tiny hamlets such as Janvier and Conklin with at most a few hundred people each.

A secondary highway, Route 956, runs from Highway 881 east to Clearwater River in northern Saskatchewan; this provincial park is 200km east of Fort Mac and just as isolated.

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